复习指导
2008年考研英语阅读理解精选试题及答案解析

(一)法律类

GOING BACK AND GETTING IT RIGHT

  By almost every measure, Paul Pfingst is an unsentimental prosecutor. Last week the San Diego County district attorney said he fully intends to try suspect Charles Andrew Williams, 15, as an adult for the Santana High School shootings. Even before the tragedy, Pfingst had stood behind the controversial California law that mandates treating murder suspects as young as 14 as adults.

  So nobody would have wagered that Pfingst would also be the first D.A. in the U.S. to launch his very own Innocence Project. Yet last June, Pfingst told his attorneys to go back over old murder and rape convictions and see if any unravel with newly developed DNA-testing tools. In other words, he wanted to revisit past victories--this time playing for the other team. "I think people misunderstand being conservative for being biased," says Pfingst. "I consider myself a pragmatic guy, and I have no interest in putting innocent people in jail."

  Around the U.S., flabbergasted defense attorneys and their jailed clients cheered his move. Among prosecutors, however, there was an awkward pause. After all, each DNA test costs as much as $5,000. Then there's the unspoken risk: if dozens of innocents turn up, the D.A. will have indicted his shop.

  But nine months later, no budgets have been busted or prosecutors ousted. Only the rare case merits review. Pfingst's team considers convictions before 1993, when the city started routine DNA testing. They discard cases if the defendant has been released. Of the 560 remaining files, they have re-examined 200, looking for cases with biological evidence and defendants who still claim innocence.

  They have identified three so far. The most compelling involves a man serving 12 years for molesting a girl who was playing in his apartment. But others were there at the time. Police found a small drop of saliva on the victim's shirt--too small a sample to test in 1991. Today that spot could free a man. Test results are due any day. Inspired by San Diego, 10 other counties in the U.S. are starting DNA audits.

  By Amanda Ripley ez ncisco sijevic rtwell; Lisa McLaughlin; Joseph Pierro; Josh Tyrangiel and Sora Song
  注(1)本文选自Time; 03/19/2001, Vol. 157 Issue 11, p62, 1p, 2c, 3bw
  注(2)本文习题命题模仿对象2004年真题text 1.

  1.How did Pfingst carry out his own Innocence Project?
  [A]By getting rid of his bias against the suspects.
  [B]By revisiting the past victories.
  [C]By using the newly developed DNA-testing tools.
  [D]By his cooperation with his attorneys.

  2.Which of the following can be an advantage of Innocence Project?
  [A]To help correct the wrong judgments.
  [B]To oust the unqualified prosecutors.
  [C]To make the prosecutors in an awkward situation.
  [D]To cheer up the defense attorneys and their jailed clients.

  3.The expression “flabbergasted”(Line 1, Paragraph 3) most probably means _______.
  [A]excited
  [B]competent
  [C]embarrassed
  [D]astounded

  4.Why was Pfingst an unsentimental prosecutor?
  [A]He intended to try a fifteen-year old suspect.
  [B]He had no interest in putting the innocent in jail.
  [C]He supported the controversial California law.
  [D]He wanted to try suspect as young as fourteen.

  5.Which of the following is not true according to the text?
  [A]Pfingst’s move didn’t have a great coverage.
  [B] Pfingst’s move had both the positive and negative effect.
  [C] Pfingst’s move didn’t work well.
  [D]Pfingst’s move greatly encouraged the jailed prisoners.

  篇章剖析

  本文采用的是记叙文的模式。第一段指出芬斯特作为一位铁面无私的检查官的一些做法;第二段指出芬斯特实施“清白计划”的打算及做法;第三段指出实施“清白计划”造成的反应以及可能存在的问题;第四段和第五段是实施“清白计划”的结果和影响。

  词汇注释

  prosecutor [5prRsIkju:tE(r)]n.检察官 ,检察员,起诉人,原告
  controversial [kRntrE5v\:F(E)l]adj.争论的, 争议的
  mandate [5mAndeIt]v.批准制订一个训令,如通过法律;发布命令或要求:
  wager [5weIdVE(r)]v.下赌注, 保证
  conviction [kEn5vIkF(E)n]n.定罪, 宣告有罪
  unravel[Qn5rAv(E)l]v. 阐明, 解决
  flabbergast[5flAbE^B:st; (?@) -^Ast]v.<口>使大吃一惊, 哑然失色, 使目瞪口呆
  indict[In5daIt]v.起诉, 控告, 指控, 告发
  bust[bQst]v.破产或缺钱
  oust[aJst]v.剥夺, 取代, 驱逐
  discard[dI5skB:d]v.抛开;遗弃;废弃
  molest[mE5lest]v.骚乱, 困扰, 调戏
  saliva[sE5laIvE]n.口水, 唾液

  难句突破

  1.Even before the tragedy, Pfingst had stood behind the controversial California law that mandates treating murder suspects as young as 14 as adults.

  主体句式:…Pfingst had stood behind …

  结构分析:Even before the tragedy是本句的时间状语;主句是Pfingst had stood behind…;that 引导的宾语从句修饰law;在从句中,as…as是一词组,意思是“和…一样”;出现的第三个as是介词,意思是“作为”。

  句子译文:甚至在这场悲剧发生之前芬斯特就支持加利福尼亚州的一项颇有争议的法律。这项法律规定,以成人身份受审的谋杀嫌疑犯的最低年龄可以降到十四岁。

  题目分析

  1.答案为C,属事实细节题。文中对应信息“Pfingst told his attorneys to go back over old murder and rape convictions and see if any unravel with newly developed DNA-testing tools.”是对第二段第一句的补充说明。

  2.答案为A,属推理判断题。从上下文我们可以得知,实施“清白计划”就是使用先进的DNA技术来重新审理过去的案件当中可能存在的冤案错案。

  3.答案为D, 属猜词题。从第二段第一句话我们得知芬斯特可能是美国第一个实施非常独特的“清白计划”的人,因此他的做法很可能是令人感到吃惊的,从而可猜出该词的含义。

  4.答案为B,属推理判断题。从第一段和第二段给出的事例我们可以看出,芬斯特不愿放过任何一个犯罪的人,即便他的年龄还不算大;他也不愿使无辜者蒙冤,即便案件已经审理。

  5.答案为C,属推理判断题。正因为 “Pfingst’s move works well”,美国才又有“ten other counties are starting DNA audits”,而且,“no budgets have been busted or prosecutors ousted”.

(二)教育类

PLIGHT OF THE PRESCHOOLERS

  How do they beat the odds?

  Competition for admission to the country's top private schools has always been tough, but this year Elisabeth Krents realized it had reached a new level.

  Her wake-up call came when a man called the Dalton School in Manhattan, where Krents is admissions director, and inquired about the age cutoff for their kindergarten program. After providing the information (they don't use an age cutoff), she asked about the age of his child. The man paused for an uncomfortably long time before answering. "Well, we don't have a child yet," he told Krents. "We're trying to figure out when to conceive a child so the birthday is not a problem."

  School obsession is spreading from Manhattan to the rest of the country. Precise current data on private schools are unavailable, but interviews with representatives of independent and religious schools all told the same story: a glut of applicants, higher rejection rates. "We have people calling us for spots two years down the road," said Marilyn Collins of the Seven Hills School in Cincinnati. "We have grandparents calling for pregnant daughters."

  Public-opinion poll after poll indicates that Americans' No. 1 concern is education. Now that the long economic boom has given parents more disposable income, many are turning to private schools, even at price tags of well over $10,000 a year. "We're getting applicants from a broader area, geographically, than we ever have in the past," said

  Betsy Haugh of the Latin School of Chicago, which experienced a 20 percent increase in applications this year.

  The problem for the applicants is that while demand has increased, supply has not. "Every year, there are a few children who do not find places, but this year, for the first time that I know of, there are a significant number of children who don't have places," said Krents, who also heads a private-school admissions group in New York.

  So what can parents do to give their 4-year-old an edge? Schools know there is no foolproof way to pick a class when children are so young. Many schools give preference to siblings or alumni children.

  Some use lotteries. But most rely on a mix of subjective and objective measures: tests that at best identify developmental maturity and cognitive potential, interviews with parents and observation of applicants in classroom settings. They also want a diverse mix. Children may end up on a waiting list simply because their birthdays fall at the wrong time of year, or because too many applicants were boys.

  The worst thing a parent can do is to pressure preschoolers to perform--for example, by pushing them to read or do math exercises before they're ready. Instead, the experts say, parents should take a breath and look for alternatives. Another year in preschool may be all that's needed. Parents, meanwhile, may need a more open mind about relatively unknown private schools--or about magnet schools in the public system. There's no sign of the private-school boom letting up. Dalton's spring tours, for early birds interested in the 2001-2002 school year, are filled. The wait list? Forget it. That's closed, too.

  By Pat Wingert Newsweek; 05/15/2000, Vol. 135 Issue 20, p76, 2/3p, 1c
  注(1):本文选自Newsweek,05/15/2000, p76

1.The author uses the examples to show __________.
[A]the concern of Americans
[B]the charm of the private schools
[C]the fierce situation for preschoolers
[D]the economic situation of American families

2.What is implied in Paragraph 4?
[A]The harsh way of forming a class.
[B]The high expectation of the parents.
[C]The wise selection of the school.
[D]The difficulty of getting enrolled.

3.The author’s attitude toward this event is __________.
[A]indifferent
[B]apprehensive
[C]supportive
[D]indignant

4.Instead of giving their children great pressure to outperform, the parents should ______.
[A]avoid the competition and wait for another year
[B]give up their first choice and go to the unknown school
[C]let their children be and do what they want to do
[D]deal with the matter more casually and rethink the situation

5.The text intends to express _________.
[A]the popularity of the private schools
[B]parents’ worry about their children’s schooling
[C]the plight of the preschoolers
[D]the severe competition in going to school

篇章剖析

  本文采用提出问题---分析问题的模式。文章以实例作为切入点,着重阐述了学龄前儿童所面临的困境。第一段和第二段指出家长对子女教育问题的关注;第三段指出儿童入学难这一现象及其原因;第四段指出一些学校的招生办法以及有些学生无法入学的原因;第五段指出父母应该怎么做。

词汇注释

wake-up call (宾馆提供的)唤醒手机验证领28彩金,叫早手机验证领28彩金
kindergarten [kIndE5^B:t(E)n] n.幼儿园 adj.幼儿园的, 初级的, 启蒙阶段的
figure out v.合计为, 计算出, 解决, 断定, 领会到
conceive [kEn5si:v] v. 怀孕, 考虑, 设想
obsession [Eb5seF(E)n] n. 迷住, 困扰
glut [^lQt] n. 供应过剩;充斥
edge [edV] n.刀口, 利刃, 锋, 优势, 边缘, 优势, 尖锐 give an edge to 加剧,使尖锐化;鼓舞, 使兴奋;给(刀等)开刃, 使锋利
foolproof [5fu:lpru:f] adj.十分简单的, 十分安全的, 极坚固的
sibling[5sIblIN] n.兄弟, 姐妹, 同胞, 同属
alumni [E`lQmnaI ] n. pl.男毕业生, 男校友
lottery [5lRtErI] n. 抽彩给奖法
cognitive [ `kC^nItIv ] adj.认知的, 认识的, 有感知的
diverse [daI5v\:s] adj.不同的, 变化多的
alternative [C:l5t\:nEtIv] n. 二中择一, 可供选择的办法, 事物adj.选择性的
boom [bu:m] n. 繁荣, 隆隆声
let up v. 停止, 中止, 放松

难句突破

1.But most rely on a mix of subjective and objective measures: tests that at best identify developmental maturity and cognitive potential, interviews with parents and observation of applicants in classroom settings.

主体句式:most rely on a mix of subjective and objective measures…

结构分析:本句是一个简单句。冒号之后的成分做measures的同位语;tests,interviews和observation属于并列结构。

句子译文:但大多数学校还是用主观和客观结合的方法:进行考试,确定孩子的发育成熟程度和认知潜能;同学生家长面谈,或在教室观察孩子的反应能力。

题目分析

1.答案为C,属事实细节题。文中头两段举例说明子女教育问题成了美国家庭的头等大事,由此引发学龄前儿童入学难这一社会问题。

2.答案为A,属推理判断题。第四段阐述了学校选学生的一些倾向和做法。对于一个几岁的孩子及其家长又是主观考察,又是客观考察,又是抽签,还要考虑班里学生的多样性,等等。对于孩子来讲,真是有些勉为其难。

3.答案为B,属情感态度题。全文表达了对学龄前儿童的关注,以及对他们所处环境的忧虑和担心。

4.答案为D,属事实细节题。原文对应信息“Instead, the experts say, parents should take a breath and look for alternatives.”

5.答案为C,属中心思想题。全文的中心都围绕着学龄前儿童所处的困境这一点。

(三)经济类

Plumper

  How does the country’s economy compare with those of the EU?

  SOME of the concerns surrounding Turkey’s application to join the European Union, to be voted on by the EU’s Council of Ministers on  December 17th, are economic-in particular, the country’s relative poverty. Its GDP per head is less than a third of the average for the 15 pre-2004 members of the EU. But it is not far off that of one of the ten new members which joined on May 1st 2004 (Latvia), and it is much the same as those of two countries, Bulgaria and Romania, which this week concluded accession talks with the EU that could make them full members on January 1st 2007.

  Furthermore, the country’s recent economic progress has been, according to Donald Johnston, the secretary-general of the OECD, "stunning". GDP in the second quarter of the year was 13.4% higher than a year earlier, a rate of growth that no EU country comes close to matching. Turkey’s inflation rate has just fallen into single figures for the first time since 1972, and this week the country reached agreement with the IMF on a new three-year, $10 billion economic programme that will, according to the IMF’s managing director, Rodrigo Rato, "help Turkey... reduce inflation toward European levels, and enhance the economy’s resilience".

  Resilience has not historically been the country’s economic strong point. As recently as 2001, GDP fell by over 7%. It fell by more than 5% in 1994, and by just under 5% in 1999. Indeed, throughout the 1990s growth oscillated like an electrocardiogram recording a violent heart attack. This irregularity has been one of the main reasons (along with red tape and corruption) why the country has failed dismally to attract much-needed foreign direct investment.

  Its stock of such investment (as a percentage of GDP) is lower now than it was in the 1980s, and annual inflows have scarcely ever reached $1 billion (whereas Ireland attracted over $25 billion in 2003, as did Brazil in every year from 1998 to 2000).

  One deterrent to foreign investors is due to disappear on January 1st 2005. On that day, Turkey will take away the right of virtually every one of its citizens to call themselves a millionaire. Six noughts will be removed from the face value of the lira; one unit of the local currency will henceforth be worth what 1m are now-ie, about €0.53 ($0.70). Goods will have to be priced in both the new and old lira for the whole of the year, but foreign bankers and investors can begin to look forward to a time in Turkey when they will no longer have to juggle mentally with indeterminate strings of zeros.

  Economist; 12/18/2004, Vol. 373 Issue 8406, p115-115, 2/5p
  注(1):本文选自Economist;12/18/2004, p115-115, 2/5p;

1.What is Turkey’s economic situation now?
[A] Its GDP per head is far lagging behind that of the EU members.
[B] Its inflation rate is still rising.
[C] Its economy grows faster than any EU member.
[D] Its economic resilience is very strong.

2.We can infer from the second paragraph that__________.
[A] Turkey will soon catch the average GDP level of the 15 pre-2004 EU members
[B] inflation rate in Turkey used to be very high
[C] Turkey’s economy will keep growing at present rate
[D] IMF’s economic program will help Turkey join the EU

3.The word “oscillated” (Line 3, Paragraph 3) most probably means_________.
[A] fell
[B] climbed
[C] developed
[D] swang

4.Speaking of Turkey’s foreign direct investment, the author implies that_________.
[A] it’s stock is far less than that of other countries
[B] it does not have much influence on Turkey’s economic progress
[C] steady GDP growth will help Turkey attract more foreign direct investment
[D] Turkey’s economic resilience relies on foreign direct investment

5.We can draw a conclusion from the text that__________.
[A] foreign investment environment in Turkey will become better
[B] Turkey’s citizens will suffer heavy loss due to the change of the face value of the lira
[C] the local currency will depreciate with the removal of six noughts from the face value
[D] prices of goods will go up

篇章剖析

  本篇文章是一篇说明文,介绍了土耳其的经济状况。第一段将土耳其的经济情况和其他几个欧盟新成员国的经济情况进行了一下对比,说明土耳其的经济状况并非如人们担心的那样糟糕;第二段对土耳其这几年的经济增长情况进行了简要介绍;第三段说明土耳其的经济缺乏弹性以及由此带来的影响;最后一段说明妨碍投资者的一个因素即将消失。

词汇注释

GDP: 国内生产总值(gross domestic product)
accession: [Ak5seFEn] n. 添加, 增加
OECD: 经合,经济合作与发展组织 (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development)
resilience: [rI5zIlIEns] n. 弹回, 有弹力, 恢复力,
oscillate: [5Csileit]v. 振荡
electrocardiogram: [IlektrEJ5kB:dIEJ^rAm] n. .[医]心电图, 心动电流图(略作ECG)
inflow: [5inflEu] n. 流入, 流入物
deterrent: [di5tE:rEnt] n. 阻碍物
nought: [nC:t] n. 无, 零
lira: [5liErE] n. 里拉
juggle: [5dVQ^l] v. (常与with连用)耍杂耍
indeterminate: [7indi5tE:minit] adj. 在程度、体积、性质或数量上没有准确确定的

难句突破

But it is not far off that of one of the ten new members which joined on May 1st 2004 (Latvia), and it is much the same as those of two countries, Bulgaria and Romania, which this week concluded accession talks with the EU that could make them full members on January 1st 2007.

主体句式:it is not far off that…and it is much the same as..

结构分析:这是一个复杂句,句子主体结构是一个并列句,在第一个并列分句里有一个which引导的定语从句修饰new members,在第二个并列分句里有一个which引导的非限定性定语从句修饰Bulgaria and Romania,还有一个that引导的定语从句,修饰accession talks。

句子译文:但是和2004年5月1日加入欧盟的十个新成员国之一(拉脱维亚)相比,土耳其差得并不算太远,而和本周刚刚完成加入欧盟的谈判,并将在2007年1月获得完全成员地位的两个国家,保加利亚和罗马尼亚相比则相差无几。

题目分析

1.答案为C,属事实细节题。根据文章第二段,土耳其的经济发展“十分惊人”。接着载第二行,作者以数据说明土耳其本年度第二季度的GDP增长“no EU country comes close to matching”,可见其经济发展速度超过任何欧盟成员。

2.答案为B,属推理判断题。根据文章第二段“土耳其得通货膨胀率自1972年以来首次跌进各位数”可知,以前的通货膨胀率都在两位数甚至更多,是非常高的数字。

3.答案为D,属猜词题。这个词的意思可以根据文中第三段所用的明喻判断出来。文中说,整个1990年代,土耳其的GDP增长就好像“遭受了猛烈的心脏病发作时的心电图一样”,可见GDP增长时高时低,峰谷之间的差异较大,所以oscillated最有可能的意思就是“摆动,震荡”,只有A中的swang意思与之相符。

4.答案为C,属推理判断题。根据文章第三段,GDP的不规律性是导致土耳其难以吸引外国直接投资的主要原因,可见稳定的GDP增长有助于土耳其吸引更多的外国直接投资。

5.答案为A,属推理判断题。文章在第一段和第二段介绍土耳其快速的经济增长。第三段分析了过去不能吸引急需的外国直接投资的主要原因之一:经济发展不规律性。文章最后一段介绍了将取消妨碍外国投资者的一个因素。并在文章最末提到:“外国银行家和投资人现在可以期待今后在土耳其再不用快速心算一串串数不清的零了”。由此可见,土耳其的外国投资环境将变得更好。

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